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ABOUT TITLES OF TRADITIONAL RULERS, ROYALTY, NOBILITY, CHIVALRY AND CHIEFS OF PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

System of traditional titles of Philippine Islands is very complicated. It was changing during the time, and it was different in every culture on this archipelago. Today, best preserved and practicaly only in use are traditional titles in Sultanate of Sulu. Titles of Philippine Islands came from various languages and cultures. Some of them are indigenous in Southeast Asia, while some ame from Middle East (Islamic), European (Hispanic), Indian, and other cultures and sources. Presented list of titles of traditional rulers, royalty, nobility, chivalry and chiefs is uncompleted. However, we believe, that it will be some contribution concerning this question. Author and editor are hoping, that this list will be useful in some further reasearch.

Adinda – See: Maharaja Adinda.

Agalon – This title was used in Visayas. Term Agalon or Amo has roughly same meaning as European title “lORD”. Title
Agalon (Amo) was refering to Datu in that area. See also: Datu.

Amo – See: Agalon.

Ampun – Part of full regnal title of HM Ampun Sultan Muedzul-Lail Tan Kiram of Sulu. Term “Ampun” roughliy has meaning “mercy”, or “forgiveness”, so in this title it likely should be translated as “merciful”. See also: Sultan.

Apo – This was the title same, or very similar to Datu, or Lakan in Tagalog region (Luzon, one of the Philippine Islands). Basic meaning of title Apo is roughly same, as term “CСТОП”.
Atubang sa Datu – In Visayas, the Chief minister or Privy counselor of the Datu was known as the Atubang sa Datu (literally “facing the datu”). Atubang sa Datu belonged to the Tumao class. See also: Datu; Tumao. Bandahala – This was the title of the town inspector of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the 20th century.

Batara – See: Raja.

Bilanggo – Bearer of this title in Visayas was responsible for maintaining law and order. Own house of Bilanggo served as “ЛТХКnРРoаКn” (this is the term for community jail in Visayas).Binokot – In Visayas, Princesses, female members of Principalía, were known as Binokot (literally “the veiled ones”, or “the wrapped ones”), due to the fact that they were usually transported by slaves in covered palanquins. See also:Principalía. Cabeza de Barangay – During colonial period, nobility of Philippine Islands (Principalía) was mainly composed of Gobernadorcillos, and Cabezas de Barangay – who were chiefs of the barangays (smallest administrative division at Philippine Islands). Cabeza de Barangay means head of the barangay in Spanish. This office was inherited from the Datus, who became Cabezas de Barangay, when many independent barangays on Philippine Islands became vassals of the Spanish Crown. King Phillip II of Spain decided, that the native nobility of Philippine Islands should retain honors and privileges they had before. The office of the Cabeza de Barangay was hereditary. See: Principalia; Gobernadorcillo.

Chancellor – See: Datu Sadja.

Captain – See: Gobernadorcillo.

Chief — See: Raja; Datu; Timway.

Chief minister – See: Atubang sa Datu.

Chief of Protocol and Public Relations – See: Datu Sadja.

Companion – See: Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.

Companion of the Pearl Collar – See: Royal and Hashemite

Order of the Pearl.

Crown Prince – See: Raja Muda.

Datu – Title of royalty, highest nobles and notables at

Philippine Islands. This title is in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu also known as Su-sultanun. Some of early Rulers of Sulu were
ЛОКrТnР tТtХО TuКn. DОsМОnНКnt oП TuКn MКsСā′ТФСК (НТОН Тn 1310 AD) was Tuan May. He had a son, named Datu Tka. The descendants of Tuan May did not assume the title Tuan, instead, they started to use title Datu. It is the first known time, that title Datu was used as a political institution in Sulu.91 Before the arrival of Islam, Sulu Archipelago was inhabited by several cultures, and was devided in three independent kingdoms, which were ruled by the Buranun, Tagimaha, and Baklaya peoples. The socio-political systems of these kingdoms were characterized by several distinct institutions: rajahship, datuship, tuanship and timwayship. The arrival of mentioned RuХОr, TuКn MКsСā′ТФСК, ОstКЛХТsСОН К МorО Islamic community in the island.

Datu with his wife Boxer Codex 16th

Datu with his wife Boxer Codex 16th

Title Datu is in Royal Sultanate of Sulu acquired purely by lineage to the sultanate (or adoption). All male members of the Royal House of Sulu should hold this hereditary title. They should hold the style: His Royal Highness or His Highness, according to the traditional customs of Royal House of Sulu.Their spouses should automatically hold the title of Dayang Dayang (Princess of the first degree) and should hold the style: Her Royal Highness or Her Highness.

In Visayas, Datus belonged to the Tumao class. In that region and Mindanao, Datu was, among other meanings, title refering: Chiefs, sovereign Princes, and Monarchs.This was also title of members of Maginoo class in Tagalog society (at the lowlands of Luzon), who ruled over a community. They either ruled over a single community (a pook) or part of a larger settlement (a bayan, “town”). They constituted a council (lipon, lupon, or pulong) and answered to a Paramount Chief, Lakan (or Rajah). During the Spanish conquest of Philippine Islands,these community Datu were given the equivalent Spanish title of Don.

Some similar titles of the same root are used in other parts of Southeast Asia, As well as Oceania. For instance, word Datu is akin to the Malay word Dato or Datuk, which are royal titles of the Malay people, and to the Fijian title of Ratu. See also: Datu Sadja; Lakan; Tuan; Raja; Timway.

Datu Amir Bahar – See: Datu Sadja.

Datu Maharaja Adenduk – See: Datu Sadja.

Datu Maharaja Layla – See: Datu Sadja.

Datu Sadja – This is the title of the major titled nobility in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu. Style of Datu Sadja is “Excellency”. The title of Datu Sadja may be granted for particular merits or achieved through appointment to any of the eight great offices of the Realm: Wazir (Prime Minister), Datu Maharaja Adenduk, Datu Maharaja Layla, Datu Amir Bahar,Chancellor, Secretary General, Gateway Chronicler King of Arms, and the Chief of Protocol and Public Relations. In the past, the list of these offices was varying, but it was similar.Also, title (Gullal) of Datu Sadja is granted, if a commoner has achieved outstanding deeds or services to Sultan andSultanate, through display of bravery, heroism, etc.

Title of Datu Sadja is not hereditary, unless the Sultan, in any particular situation, decides otherwise. Anyway, a kind of preference is being given to the relatives of the past Datu Sadjas. Only those, who were created personally, keep the title for life, irrespectively of any reappointments and resignations. It is currently established, that the children of Datus enjoy the titles of Tuan (for men) and Sitty (for women). Also, this Tuanship descends via primogeniture. See also: Datu; Dayang;
Gullal; Excellency.

Dayang – This is the female equivalent of the title Datu Sadja in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu. Spouses of Datu Sadjas in this Sulatanate are bearing title Dayang, and style: Her Excellency. In the lowlands of Luzon its male equivalent is Gat. This title was also formerly used in other parts of Southeast Asia, for instance in Sarawak. See also: Dayang Dayang; Datu Sadja; Gat; Maginoo.

Dayang Dayang – Title of the Princess (Princess of the first degree) within the Sultanate of Sulu is Dayang Dayang. It is the female equivalent of the title Datu. Spouses of Datus in this Sultanate should automatically hold the title of Dayang Dayang,
and hold the style: Her Royal Highness or Her Highness. See also: Dayang; Datu.

Distinguished Companion – See: Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.

Don – See: Datu; Principalía.

Doña – See: Principalía.

Dynastic Order – See: Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.

Excellency – This is well known style in English language. For instance, it is the style used in today the Royal
Sultanate of Sulu. It refers to Datu Sadja and Dayang. See also: Datu Sadja; Dayang.

Gat – Proper names of the members of Maginoo class of the lowlands of Luzon were preceded by title Gat for men
and Dayang for women. TСОsО tТtХОs КrО sТmТХКr to “ХorН” КnН “ХКНв”. SОО КХso: MКРТnoo; DКвКnР.Gateway Chronicler King of Arms – See: Datu Sadja.

Ginoo – See: Maginoo.

Ginu – This is nobility social class among Kapampangan people at Philippine Islands. It is similar to
Maginoo class (lowlands of Luzon), or Tumao class (Visayan people). See also: Maginoo; Tumao.

Gobernadorcillo – During colonial period, Filipino nobility (Principalía) was mainly composed of Gobernadorcillos,
and Cabezas de barangay. Gobernadorcillos had functions similar to a town mayor, municipal judge or governor. In towns
at the coast, Gobernadorcillo also functioned as a port Captain. See: Principalia; Cabeza de Barangay.

Grand Cordon – See: Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.

Grand Sayyid – HM Ampun Sultan Muedzul – Lail Tan

Kiram of Sulu is the Grand Sayyid (Grand Master) of The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl. See also: Sayyid; Royal and
Hashemite Order of the Pearl; Sultan.Gullal – TСТs Тs tСО tОrm аТtС mОКnТnР: “tТtХО” аТtСТn the Royal Sultanate of Sulu. Gullal refers to various titles in this Sultanate, for instance Datu Sadja. Gullal is made, if a commoner has achieved outstanding deeds or services, through display of bravery, heroism, etc. See also: Datu Sadja.

Head of the Royal House – HM Ampun Sultan Muedzul – Lail Tan Kiram of Sulu is the Head of the Royal House of the Sultanate of Sulu (House of Kiram), since 16.February 1986, after the death of HТs MКУОstв’s ХКtО ПКtСОr, HM Moh. Mahakuttah A. Kiram, 34th Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo. See also: Sultan.

Herald – See: Paratawag; Datu Sadja.Hereditary Sovereign – Hereditary Sovereign of The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl is HM Ampun Sultan Muedzul – Lail Tan Kiram of Sulu. See also: Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl; Sultan. Highness – This is well known style in English language. In the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, Princes (Royal Datu, Datu) and Princesses (Dayang Dayang) are entitled to the styles either of Highness or of Royal Highness. See also: Royal Highness; Datu; Dayang Dayang.108
Honorable – See: Honourable.Honourable – This is style used for bearers of titles Tuan (for males) and Sitti (for females), within the Royal Sultanate of Sulu. It is worldwide well known style, in English language. See also: Tuan; Sitti; Patik.109
Juhan Pahalawan – This was the title of the fortification inspector of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the
20th century.

Kadatoan – In Visaya, the immediate royal family of the Datu were distinguished from the rest of the Tumao class. It
was known as the Kadatoan (Kadatuan), which was both a political office and a social class. The purity of the lineage of the
Kadatoan was very important in claiming the right to rule, so members of this class usually only married members of other
Datu families. See also: Tumao; Datu.

Kadatuan – See: Kadatoan.

Kalibutan – Bearers of the title Datu in Visayas, whose four grandparents are all of pure royal descent, were known as Kalibutan (it means “all around”). See also: Datu.

Kaponoan – See: Pangulo.

Kesultanan – See: Wakil Kesultanan.

Lakan – This was pre – Hispanic title of Paramount Chief of members of Maginoo class among Tagalogs, at the
lowlands of Luzon. In that area, community Datus were reporting to Lakans. Today, the term is still occasionally used,
with meaning “nobleman”, but it has mostly been adapted to other uses. See also: Raja; Datu; Maginoo.

Laksaman – Sub region representative inside Royal Sulu Sultanate is called Laksaman. This office is corresponding
with title Tuan (for males), or Sitti (for females). In the beginning of the 20th century, Laksamana was office of messenger of Panglima in Sulu Sultanate. See also: Tuan; Sitti; Panglima.

Laksamana – See: Laksaman.

Lord – See: Maginoo; Panginoon.

Lubus nga Datu – See: Potli.Maginoo – Tagalog nobility in the lowlands of Luzon were known as Maginoo. Only persons who can claim royal descent, were included in this class. They were nobles by lineage and family. Regardless of gender, members of the
Maginoo class were referred to as Ginoo. For this class was used Spanish term SОňor (lord). See also: Gat; Dayang;
Panginoon.

Maharlika – Honourable class of untitled professional warriors. This term is used in the Sultanate of Sulu, and historically, elsewhere at Philippine Islands (Tagalog society in the lowlands of Luzon etc.). Among Tagalogs, members of Maharlika class were feudal warriors, free vassals of their Datu, who were exempt from taxes and tribute. Instead, they were required to provide military service. This was lower nobility, similar to Timawa class in Visayas.Word Maharlika is derived from Sanskrit term
“mКСКrННСТФК” Its mОКnТnР Тs “К mКn oП аОКХtС, ФnoаХОНРО, КnН КЛТХТtв”. SТmТХКr tОrms КrО КХso prОsОntОН Тn otСОr pКrts oП
Southeast Asia. For instance, in precolonial Java, Maharddhika referred to members of religious orders, usually royal advisors,
who were not obligated to pay taxes or tribute. In the 7th century Srivijaya Empire (parts of Sumatra, Java and Malay Peninsula), this term referred to powerful individuals who controlled their own subjects, from Alipin class (servants and
sХКvОs). SТmТХКr аorНs, ХТФО: ”mКrНТФК”, “mОrНОФК”, “mОrНОСОФК”, or “mКrКНТФК” КХso mОКn “ПrООНom” (Кs opposОН to sОrvТtuНО) Тn
various Indo-Malayan languages, including languages of the Muslim areas of Southern Philippines. See also: Untitled Nobility; Timawa.

Maharaja – Rank of the captain in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the first decades of the 20th century. Maharaja Adinda – This is title of the second person in the order of succession to the throne (first in order of succession, Crown Prince, is Raja Muda). Term Maharaja Adinda is used in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu. See also: Raja Muda.

Official flag

Official flag of HM Ampun Sultan Muedzul-Lail Tan Kiram, the Sovereign and Grand Sayyid (Grand Master) of the Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl. Artist: HE Datu Sadja Michael Y. Medvedev.

Maharaja Bansawan – This was the office of major in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the 20th century.

Maharaja Laila – This was the title of the district inspector of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the 20th century.

Maharaja Pahalawan – Rank of the colonel in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the 20th century.
Majesty – This is the style of Sultan of the RoyalSultanate of Sulu. It is well known style in English language,
used in many monarchies worldwide. See also: Sultan; Paduka Mahasari Maulana al Sultan.

Makaporos nga Datu – See: Pangulo.

Mantiri – This was office in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu. It was conferred to blood relatives of Sultan.

Maygintawo – In the lowlands of Luzon, member of Maginoo class of lower status, who gain prominence by newly
acquired wealth, were known as Maygintawo (literally “person with a lot of gold”). See also: Maginoo.Member – See: Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.

Mirbahal – This was the title of the Secretary of commerce of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the early years of
the 20th century.

Muluk Bandarasa – This was the title of the Secretary of State of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the
20th century.

Muluk Cajal – Title of the Secretary of war of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the 20th century.

Munabbi – Former office in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu. It was conferred to blood relatives of Sultan.

Muratib – Master of ceremonies of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the 20th century. This office was
conferred to blood relatives of Sultan.

Nakib – This was the office of the first lieutenant in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the 20th century.

Nobility – See: Datu Sadja; Tuan; Sitti; Untitled Nobility.

Officer – See: Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.

Order – See: Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.

Order of the Pearl – See: Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.

Paduka – See: Paduka Mahasari Maulana al Sultan; Sarripada.

Paduka Mahasari Maulana al Sultan – This is form of adress to Sultan of Sulu. When the first Musilim Ruler of Sulu, Johore-born explorer and religious scholar Sayyid Abu Bakr Abirin founded Sultanate of Sulu in 1457 AD, he assumed the tТtХО “Paduka Mahasari Maulana al Sultan Sharif ul-HāsСТm”. See also: Sultan; Majesty.

Pangholo – This was the ofПТМО oП SuХtКn’s mОssОnРОr in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the 20th
century.

Panginoon – This title was used for particularly powerful members of Maginoo class in the lowlands of Luzon.Paginoons ruled over a large number of dependents and slaves, owned numerous property, and their lineage was impeccable. The short form of this title, Poon (Punò), is the basis for the modern word for respect in the Tagalog language -pô. BКsТМ mОКnТnР oП tОrm Poon Тs “CСТОП”, or “LОКНОr”. TСТs tТtХО was used to determine principal or head of a lineage. For this Poons was used Spanish term SОňor (lord). See also: Maginoo.

Panglima – This is region representative within Royal Sultanate of Sulu. Office of Panglima is corresponding with title
Tuan (for males), or Sitti (for females). See also: Tuan; Sitti.

Panglima Dalan – Former office in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu. It was conferred to blood relatives of Sultan.

Pangulo – Datus in Visayas were loosely bound to each other in a federation. Members of a this federation had a leading Datu, who had authority over other Datus. He was usually referred as: Pangulo (“СОКН” or “ruХОr”), Kaponoan (“most sovОrОТРn”), or Makaporos nga Datu (“unТПвТnР МСТОП”).

Paragahin – In Visayas, the steward who collected and recorded tributes and taxes and dispensed them among the household and dependents of Datu, was known as the Paragahin. Bearer of this title was also responsible for organizing public feasts and communal work. Paragahin belonged to the Tumao class.

Paramount Chief – See: Lakan.

Paratawag – In Visayan society, the proclamations(mantala) of Datus were delivered to the local population by an
person serving as the town Herald. The title of this Herald was Paratawag

Parkasa – Aide-de-camp of region representative inside Royal Sulu Sultanate. This office is corresponding with
title Tuan (for males) or Sitti (for females). See also: Tuan; Sitti.

Patik – This was style in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu. It’s mОКnТnР аКs “Вour Honour”.

Poon – See: Panginoon.

Potli – Datu, who is of pure royal lineage (for four generations, or more) was known in Visayas as Potli. They are also known as Potli nga Datu, or Lubus nga Datu. See also: Datu.

Potli nga Datu – See: Potli.

Prime Minister – See: Datu Sadja.

Prince – See: Datu; Royal Datu.

Princess – See: Dayang Dayang; Binokot.

Principalía – At Phillipine Islands, name Principalía was used during colonial period, refering noble class. It was ruling, and usually educated upper class in the towns of colonial Philippines. Principalía was composed of Gobernadorcillos, and Cabezas de barangay. Gobernadorcillos had functions similar to a town mayor, and Cabezas de barangay were chiefs of the barangays (smallest administrative division at Philippine Islands). Being part of the Principalía was a hereditary right. However, it could also be acquired by royal decision. Their style was Don (for males) and Doña (for females). See also: Gobernadorcillo; Cabezas de barangay.

Privy counselor – See: Atubang sa datu.

Puno – See: Panginoon.

Raja – This was a title of local Ruler or Chief. In Visayas, Pangulo (leading Datu) of some ports with frequent traffic, was sometimes titled: Rajah (“ruler”), Batara (“noble lord”), Sarripada, Salip, Sipad, Paduka, or Salipada (all РОnОrКtОН Пrom SКnsФrТt “SrТ PКНuФК”, mОКnТnР – “His Highness”). These titles are mostly from Malay or Sanskrit language. Authority of Philippine Rajas usually comes from favorable trade positions, military prowess, lineage, and wealth, rather than royal rule. While they had limited power over other member Datus of their federation based on their renown, theyhad no direct control over the subjects or lands of the other Datus. Title Raja was also formerly used in other parts of Southeast Asia, for instance in Sarawak. Alternative spelling is Rajah. Sulu Archipelago, before the arrival of Islam, was inhabited by several peoples, and it was devided in three independent kingdoms. The political and social systems of these kingdoms were characterized by various institutions: rajahship, datuship, tuanship and timwayship. Rajas were Rulers in some of these political entities. The arrival of first Ruler of unified Sulu, TuКn MКsСā′ТФСК, ОstКЛХТsСОН К МorО Islamic community in that area, and gradual extinction of Raja as rulership title. See also: Pangulo; Tuan; Datu; Timway.

Raja Laut – This was the title of the Secretary of navy of Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of 20th century.

Raja Muda – The formally designated heir to the throne in the Sultanate of Sulu. This title was also formerly used in other parts of Southeast Asia, for instance in Sarawak. It is created from old title Raja. See also: Raja; Maharaja Adinda.

Current Sultan of Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo, HM Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram, was Crown Prince (Raja Muda) in period from 1974. to 2012. Today, Crown Prince of Sultanate of SuХu КnН NortС BornОo Тs HM SuХtКn’s ОХНОst son, HRH Raja Muda Mohammad Ehsan S. Kiram. See also: Raja; Maharaja Adinda; Sultan.

Rajah – See: Raja.

Royal – See: Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl; Royal Datu; Royal Highness.

Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl – This is the dynastic Order of the Royal House of Sulu, which serves as the
premier premial institution and the highest personal honour of and in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu. The Order is an honourable
and nobiliary corporation instituted as a dynastic Order of Datuship analogous to traditional dynastic Orders of Chivalry,
and is in direct continuation from the ancient customs and distinctions of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu and the Court of the
Sultan. Moto oП tСТs OrНОr Тs: “Hakahawpuan Iban Hakahabaan Tiranan” (“At a short and a large distance”).

The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl was formally established in June 2011, but it is an institution whose roots are much deeper. When the current Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo, His Majesty Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram decided to establish a Order, using His sovereign right as “Fons honorum”, it was uniting of the royal, nobiliary and chivalrous traditions of Sultanate, in a manner appropriate international standards. Pearl is very important for the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo. On the islands of the Sulu archipelago pearls are collected for centuries in the traditional way. It is believed, that pearls from Sulu are most valuable in the world. For centuries, only the Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo had the right to possess the largest and most valuable pearls found in the archipelago. Although penalties for violators of this law were very harsh, some exceptional pieces found their way to Europe and other destinations by secret channels. Pearls are also of great importance for this country because, for a long time, they are one of the pillars of its economy.

The term “Hashemite” in the title of Order has its roots in the very foundations Kiram dynasty, as well as the history of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo. This term refers to the ancient Arab clan Hashemites, descendants of Hashim. It is a branch of a larger tribe, the Quraish. From the Hashemite clan originated Prophet Muhammad himself, his daughter Fatima and her husband Ali, the most important personalities of Islam. The roots of this clan are in the region Hejaz in today’s Saudi Arabia, near the Red Sea.

Hashemites, in the narrow sense, are descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and her husband Ali. Fatima and Ali had more children, but it is known that four of them came to maturity. These were sons Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, and daughters Zaynab and Umm Kulthum. Descendants of Fatima and Ali are bearing honorary titles Sayyid (master) and the Sharif (noble).

One of the Dynasties that have Hashemite ancestry is Royal House of Kiram of Sulu and North Borneo. In the first half of the 15th century Sayyid Abubakar Abirin, a prominent explorer and Islamic religious teacher, came to Sulu. He was born in Johor on the Malay Peninsula, and he was of Arabic, respectively of Hashemitic origin. He married Princess Paramisuli and about 1450, after the death of his father in law Raj Baguinde, he founded the Sultanate of Sulu. Said Abubakar AЛТrТn ruХОr’s name was Sharif ul – Hashim. The present Royal House of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo, Kiram, descends from him.

As mentioned, Hashemites in the narrow sense of the word, or descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima, ave the right to bear the title Sayyid. In accordance with the traditions of his country, and his Hashemitic origin, His Majesty Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo, bears the title of the Grand Sayyid of the The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl. It is the appropriate title for this function of His Majesty, because it is equivalent to the traditional title of the Grand Master of the Order in English language.

The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl is divided into several grades. Highest grade, Royal Companion, is reserved exclusively for members of the current and former ruling houses. Beside this, there are five more grades in the Order: Grand Cordon, Distinguished Companion, Companion,

Officer and Member. This ranking to some extent resembles the ranking of traditional nobility and privileged classes of society in the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo (datu, tuan…), but also the European Royal Orders of Chivalry. Membership in the Order can only be acquired in accordance with the wish and the approval of its Grand Sayyid (Grand Master). With this dynastic Order its Grand Sayyid rewards persons of all nationalities and religions, which were particularly meritorious concerning service, deeds and faithfulness to the Royal House and the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo, as well as those, who gained an outstanding international reputation in their field of activity.

Among the members of The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl there are some leading figures from the royal families, as well as scientists, artists, and other prominent individuals. We are going to mention only a few here: HM King (Omukama) Solomon Iguru I of Bunyoro-Kitara, HM King Kigeli V of Rwanda, HRH Duarte Pio Duke of Breganza “de jure” King of Portugal, HRH David Bagration of Mukhrani Crown Prince of Georgia, HIH Ermias Sahle Selassie Crown Prince of Ethiopia, HIRH Archduke Joseph Karl von Habsburg, HRH Princess Margaret von Hohenberg, HRH Prince Aleksandar Pavlov Karageorgevich, HRH Prince Vladimir Karageorgevich, HRH Princess Jelisaveta Karageorgevich, HRH Princess Brigitta Karageorgevich, HRH Princess Luciana Pallavicini Hassan of
Afghanistan, HRH Princess Mahera Hassan of Afghanistan, HRH Prince Ibrahim Osman Rifat, HRH Mohsin Ali Khan of Hyderabad and many other prominent members of the Order.

Royal Companion of the Pearl Collar – See: Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.

Royal Datu – The Royal Datu is the title of the Royal Prince. Synonim for this title is Datu. It is still used in the Royal
Sultanate of Sulu, and it was in use in Mindanao. See also: Datu.

Royal Highness – In the Sultanate of Sulu, princes (Royal Datu, Datu) and Princesses (Dayang Dayang) are entitled to the styles either of Highness, or of Royal Highness. These are well known styles originating from English language.See also: Highness.

Ruler – See: Sultan; Datu; Raja.

Sabali – This was the title used within Visayan society. Sabali was the title for a Datu (Prince), who gained his status by
marrying a Princess in the Visayas. See also: Datu.

Sahibul – This was the title of the police chief of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the 20th century.

Sailama – Title of the inspector of weights and measures within the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the 20th century.

Salip – See: Raja

Salipada – See: Raja.

Sandil – This was the title used for secondary wives of Datus in Visayan society. Descendants of Datus and Sandils
were usually belonging to Tumao class. See also: Datu;Tumao.

Sandig sa Datu – In Visayas, various supporters of the Datu, belonging to Tumao class, are collectively referred to as
Sandig sa Datu (meaning: “beside the Datu”). See also: Tumao, Datu.

Sarripada – See: Raja.

Satia – OППТМО oП К pОrson “ТntrustОН аТtС МonПТНОntТКХ ТnПormКtТon” Тn SuХtКnКtО oП SuХu, Тn ОКrХв вОКrs oП tСО 20th
century.

Sawajan – This was the title of the collector of customs of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the 20th
century.

Sayyid – Most distant known ancestor of the present Royal House of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo, Kiram, was Sayyid Abubakar Abirin. He lived in the first half of the 15th century. Sayyid Abubakar Abirin was a prominent explorer and Islamic religious teacher. He was born in Johor on the Malay Peninsula, and he was of Arabic, respectively of Hashemitic origin. He came to Sulu, and married Princess Paramisuli and, after the death of his father in law Raj Baguinde, he founded the Sultanate of Sulu (about 1450. AD). Sayyid Abubakar Abirin ruХОr’s name was Sharif ul – Hashim. See also: Grand Sayyid; Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.

Secretary General – See: Datu Sadja.

SОňor – See: Maginoo; Panginoon.

Sharif – “Paduka Mahasari Maulana al Sultan Sharif ul-HāsСТm” аКs tСО tТtХО oП the first Musilim ruler of Sulu, formerly
Sayyid Abu Bakr Abirin. See also: Sayyid; Paduka Mahasari Maulana al Sultan.

Sheik – This title was atributed to Makhdum Karim, a 14th-century Arab trader. He brought Islam to Sulu, and rest of
the Philippine Islands, in 1380. Makhdum Karim established a mosque at Sulu Archipelago (in Tubig Indangan, Simunul, Tawi-
Tawi), known as Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque. This is the oldest mosque in Sulu, as well as at Philippine Islands.

Sipad – See: Raja.

Sitti – This is female equivalent of the title Tuan, with ЛКsТМ mОКnТnР “LКНв”. StвХО oП SТttТ Тs “HonourКЛХО”. TСТs tТtХО
can be achieved or inherited. Its correspondent offices are: Wakil Kesultanan, Panglima, Parkasa and Laksaman. See also:
Tuan; Wakil Kesultanan; Panglima; Parkasa; Laksaman.

Sovereign – See: Hereditary Sovereign.Su-sultanun –See: Datu.

Sultan – This is the title of supreme, Royal Ruler of Sultanate of Sulu. Sayyid Abu Bakr Abirin was the first Musilim ruler of Sulu. When he founded Sultanate of Sulu, he assumed tСО tТtХО “Paduka Mahasari Maulana al Sultan Sharif ul-HāsСТm”.Title of Sultan was also used historically in some other parts of the Philippine Archipelago.

Certainly one of the most important and most frequent royal titles in countries with deeply rooted Islamic traditions is the title of Sultan. This title comes from the Arabic language and is derived from the term “sultah”, meaning “authority” or
“power”. In the region of Sulu archipelago it has been present since the mid-15th century.

Since 16th September 2012, His Majesty Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram is the 35th Sultan of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo. Formerly, His Majesty was Crown Prince (Raja Muda).

Great Regnal Title of current Sultan of Sulu is: His Majesty Ampun Sultan Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram 35th Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo Head of the Royal House of The Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo Grand Sayyid and Hereditary Sovereign of The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl etc. etc.

Timagua – See: Timawa.

Timawa – TСТs аКs nКmО Пor tСО “sОМonН orНОr”, tСО Vassals, in Visayas. They bind themselves to the Datu as his seafaring warriors. Timawas paid no tribute, and rendered no agricultural labor. Some of their ancestors were Datus. In the Boxer Codex Timawas are mentioned as knights and hidalgos. The Spanish conquistador, Miguel de Loarca, described members of this class as “free men, neither chiefs nor slaves”. In the late 17th century, the Spanish Jesuit priest Fr. Francisco Ignatio Alcina, classified Timawas as the third rank of nobility (“noЛХОгК”). In SpКnТsС, tСТs МХКss is called Timagua. It is very similar to Maharlika class of Tagalog society in the lowlands of Luzon. See also: Maharlika.

Timway – This was the title of the traditional Chief within some of Philippine Islands. Before the arrival of Islam, Sulu Islands were inhabited by several distinct cultures. It was devided in three independent kingdoms, which were ruled by the Buranun, Tagimaha, and Baklaya peoples. The political systems of these kingdoms were characterized by distinct institutions: rajahship, datuship, tuanship and timwayship.

At Sulu Islands, certain Timway Orangkaya Su’il was mentioned, as he received four Bisaya slaves from Manila (presumably Kingdom of Tondo). It was a sign of friendship between the two countries. The descendants of Timway Orangkaya Su’il inherited the title Timway. After the arrival of ПТrst RuХОr oП unТtОН SuХu, TuКn MКsСā′ТФСК, tСО tТtХО oП TТmаКв gradually expired from this islands.

Tuan – Title with basic meaning: “lord”, “powerful mКstОr”, or “mКstОr”. ToНКв, Тt Тs tСe title of the Minor Titled Nobility in the Sultanate of Sulu. Its female equivalent is title SТttТ. StвХО oП TuКn Тs “HonourКЛХО”. TСТs tТtХО МКn ЛО КМСТОvОН or inherited. Its correspondent offices are: Wakil Kesultanan, Panglima, Parkasa and Laksaman.

Sulu Archipelago, before the arrival of Islam, was inhabited by several cultures. It was devided in three independent kingdoms, which were ruled by the Buranun,Tagimaha, and Baklaya peoples. The political systems of these kingdoms were characterized by distinct institutions: rajahship, datuship, tuanship and timwayship. The arrival of first Ruler of unТtОН SuХu, TuКn MКsСā′ТФСК, ОstКЛХТsСОН К МorО Islamic community in the island.

First Rulers of united Sulu were bearing title Tuan. Descendant of Tuan MasСā′ТФСК (НТОН Тn 1310 AD) аКs TuКn May. He had a son, named Datu Tka. The descendants of Tuan May did not assume the title Tuan, instead, they started to use title Datu. It is the first known time, that title Datu was used as a political institution in Sulu

The title of Tuan was also formerly used in other parts of Southeast Asia, for instance in Sarawak (Borneo Island). See also: Sitti; Wakil Kesultanan; Panglima; Parkasa; Laksaman.

Tumangung – TСТs аКs tСО tТtХО oП tСО “usСОr КnН sКrРОnt oП Кrms” of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the 20th century.

Tumao – This is nobility social class among Visayan people at Philippine Islands. It is similar to Maginoo class (lowlands of Luzon), or Ginu class (Kapampangan people). See also: Maginoo; Ginu; Kadatoan.

Ulangkaya – This was the rank of the lieutenant in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu, in the beginning of the 20th century.

Ulangkaya Digadong – This was former office in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu. It was conferred to blood relatives of Sultan.

Ulankaya Malik – Former office in the Royal Sultanate of Sulu. It was conferred to blood relatives of Sultan.

Untitled Nobility – In the Sultanate of Sulu, persons who descend from the Datus, Tuans, or of the old Maharlika class in a male line, are belonging to the Untitled Nobility. Also,by an implication, to the Untitled Nobility are belonging those,
who formerly occupied an ennobling office and left it honourably. This category is mostly history-oriented. See also: Datu; Tuan; Maharlika.

Uray – In Visayas, woman of noble lineage (especially the elderly) was addressed as Uray (meaning of this term is: pure as gold). Male counterpart of title is Potli. See also: Potli.

Vassals – See: Timawa; Maharlika.

Wakil Kesultanan – Office of a Sulu Royal representative abroad (region representative outside the Royal Sulu Sultanate). This office is corresponding with title Tuan (for males) or Sitti (for females). See also: Tuan; Sitti.

Wazir – See: Datu Sadja.

Official flag

His Majesty Ampun Sultan Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram 35th Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo Head of the Royal House of The Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo etc. etc.